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Exploring novel medical applications for commonly used veterinary drug (tilmicosin antibiotic)

Published on: 31st August, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7325099093

Tilmicosin (TMC) is a semi synthetic macrolide antibiotic of tylosin derivatives commonly used by veterinaries, has been shown to reveal beneficial pharmacological activities. In the current study, the potential wound healing activity, Anti-oxidant effect (ulcer and hepatoprotective) were investigated. Anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, analgesic (central and peripheral), hypnotic and antispasmodic activity were also screened. This study included adult both sexes of rats (200-250 gm), mice (20-25 gm) and adult rabbits. Experimental wound was induced on the anterior-dorsal side of each rat whereas, ulcer induced by ethanol causing mucosal damage in rats. The oral anti-inflammatory induced through formalin producing edema, antipyretic (Brewer’s yeast induced hyperthermia) and analgesic (writhing test, hot plate method, tail immersion method) while hypnotic effects induced through thiopental sodium. Anti-spasmodic effect on isolated organs (intestinal and uterine muscles) using new method of Modular Single Chamber Organ Bath were carried out on experimental animals. Tilmicosin antibiotic at different two doses of 20 and 40 mg/kg b.wt., has an important role in treatment of ulcer (cytoprotective effect) and improvement the wound healing processes besides anti-inflammatory, analgesics, and anti-pyretic effects. Tilmicosin revealed also hypnotic and intestinal anti-spasmodic effects but showed Pharmacovigilence hepatotoxic effect through the histopathological studies which revealed sever hepatic damage especially at larger dose.
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Influence of Vitamin E on the Disposition Kinetics of Florfenicol after single and multiple oral administrations in Broiler Chickens

Published on: 12th December, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7317595688

Investigation the influences of vitamin (vit) E over a period of 5 days on the pharmacokinetics of florfenicol after single and multiple oral administrations in broiler chickens. Total of 12 broiler chickens had been taken single and multiple oral administrations of florfenicol (30 mg/kg) alone or pre-treated with vit E (2 mg/kg). The serum concentrations of florfenicol were determined using microbiological assay with Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 25922) as a tested microorganism. The mean serum concentrations of florfenicol alone were markedly lower when compared with florfenicol pre-treated with vit E after single and multiple dosing. The peak serum concentrations (Cmax) were 5.9±0.46, 7.48±0.3 ug/ml, absorption half-life (t0.5ab) of 0.51±0.06, 0.71±0.1 h and elimination half-life (t0.5el) of 2.72±0.34, 3.34±0.5 after single florfenicol alone and florfenicol pre-treated with vit E respectively. While, after multiple dosing, (Cmax) were 7.4±0.3, 8.04±0.3 ug/ml, (t0.5ab) 0.82±0.04, 0.81±0.04 h and (t0.5 el) 3.77±0.2, 4.52±0.7 h after multiple dosing of florfenicol alone and florfenicol pre-treated with vit E respectively. In conclusion Vit E alter the disposition kinetics of florfenicol after single and multiple oral administrations as, vit E allows prolongation of the duration of action for more 24 and 48 h of the drug concentration in the serum indicated by prolonged elimination half-lives and MRT reflecting the importance of this combination for the drug duration in serum but the increase in the serum concentration of florfenicol increasing its efficacy not toxicity as florfenicol of wide safety margin so, it’s advisable for poultry farms owners to use this combinations.
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Biomechanical analysis of Sit-To-Walk movement in Parkinson’s patients

Published on: 27th April, 2018

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the ankle-knee-hip interaction during sit-to-walk (STW) movement and clinical functional abilities of the lower limbs in Parkinson’s patients. Methods: Twenty male patients, ages ranged from 55 to 70 years, stage ΙΙ & ΙΙΙ according to modified Hoehn and Yahr (1997) classification of disabilities and ten male healthy elderly subjects, ages ranged from 55 to 70 years, participated in this study. All subjects were assessed for; clinical functional abilities of the lower limbs, ground reaction force (GRF) & spatiotemporal data and range of motion (ROM) of hip, knee and ankle joints during STW movement. Results: The results showed very significant differences in the GRF among the normal subjects and Parkinson’s patients during STW movement. There were significant differences in hip, knee and ankle joints ROM during STW. There were significant differences in spatiotemporal findings during STW movement. The Parkinson’s disease patients did not merge the two tasks of STW while the elderly subjects merged it. There was impairment in clinical functional abilities of the lower limbs in Parkinson’s patients. Conclusion: A continuum of STW performance and clinical functional abilities whereby the healthy elderly people performed the task more efficiently than PD patients.
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New technique of imaging cellular change to squmous cells metaplsia of cervix

Published on: 7th February, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8022267562

Flexible magnifying endoscopy with narrow band imaging (ME-NBI) has outstanding diagnostic correctness for gastrointestinal metaplsia and is hope for to be highly useful for imaging stage cervixcal metaplsia beginning by imaging the first stage of metaplasia by imaging single layer of subcolmnar reserve cells reserve cells hyperplasia, the reserve cells are round to cuboid with large oval or round nuclei, seen below the surface columnar cells and the columnar
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Transcriptional profile of bovine preimplantation development selected based on G6PDH activity

Published on: 8th April, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9026744769

The oocyte is the female gamete that contributes not only half of the genetic material but also all of the cytoplasm to the zygote, supplying the transcripts, proteins, mitochondria and other components necessary for early embryonic development. The intrinsic oocyte quality is one of the main factors affecting the embryo yield, the implantation rate and the rate of healthy offspring. It is obvious that a fertilized oocyte must reach the blastocyst stage within 6–9 days in the proper culture conditions to have a significant chance of inducing a pregnancy and producing an offspring. The ability to sustain the first week of embryonic development is clearly influenced by the follicular status from which the oocyte is obtained indicating that this developmental potential is inherent within certain oocytes. Since most early embryos that do not reach the blastocyst stage are blocked at or close to the maternal to zygotic transition (MZT)-stage, which occurs at the eight-cell stage in cattle, one could speculate that incompetent oocytes fail to appropriately activate the embryonic genome. Oocyte selection based on glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity has been successfully used to differentiate between competent and incompetent bovine oocytes. Recently, molecular regulation of genes regulating biological process of Brilliant Cresyl Blue staining (BCB) selected oocytes and embryos was investigated to explain their variation in quality and developmental potentiality. This short review will highlights some of these efforts that have been done in this interesting area of research.
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Clinically and Radiological isolated syndrome (MS risk)

Published on: 28th July, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7802610102

Background: The use of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for evaluation of neurological disorders has increased in the past two decades. This has led to an increased detection of incidental findings on brain MRI. The most common of these asymptomatic abnormalities are white matter lesions that are interpreted as demyelinating based on radiological criteria. However, in the absence of associated clinical symptoms suggestive of multiple sclerosis (MS), a definite diagnosis of MS can’t be made in patients with these incidental white matter lesions. These patients are diagnosed as CIS (clinically isolated syndrome) and RIS (radiologically isolated syndrome).Using the revised McDonald criteria now allows some patients who would have been diagnosed with CIS to be diagnosed as having MS before a second episode. Method: Sixty one patients, 40 females and 21 males, age ranged between 15 years and 58 years, were included in our study. In addition to a detailed medical and neurological history and examination, CSF and blood analysis for oligoclonal bands and IgG index were performed for all patients. Result: 41 patients had positive oligoclonal bands and IgG index. After clinical, MRI results and laboratory results 44 (72.1%) were diagnosed CIS and 17 (27.9%) were RIS. Conclusion: Diagnosis of MS not depend only on MRI finding but need clinical and laboratory work up including CSF and blood analysis for oligoclonal bands and IgG index to confirm diagnosis.
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Different optimization strategies for the optimal control of tumor growth

Published on: 10th December, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8495685425

In this article different numerical techniques for solving optimal control problems is introduced, the aim of this paper is to achieve the best accuracy for the Optimal Control Problem (OCP) which has the objective of minimizing the size of tumor cells by the end of the treatment. An important aspect is considered, which is, the optimal concentrations of drugs that not affect the patient’s health significantly. To study the behavior of tumor growth, a mathematical model is used to simulate the dynamic behavior of tumors since it is difficult to prototype dynamic behavior of the tumor. A tumor-immune model with four components, namely, tumor cells, active cytotoxic T-cells (CTLs), helper T-cells, and a chemotherapeutic drug is used. Two general categories of optimal control methods which are indirect methods and direct ones based on nonlinear programming solvers and interior point algorithms are compared. Within the direct optimal control techniques, we review three different solutions techniques namely (i) multiple shooting methods, (ii) trapezoidal direct collocation method, (iii) Hermit- Simpson’s collocation method and within the indirect methods we review the Pontryagin’s Maximum principle with both collocation method and the backward forward sweep method. Results show that the direct methods achieved better control than indirect methods.
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Anticipation of difficulty during laparoscopic cholecystectomy

Published on: 24th July, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8639116784

Background: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC), is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures worldwide, it is accepted as the gold standard in the treatment of symptomatic gallstones for its minimal invasiveness, less pain and early recovery. Purpose: To predict the difficulty of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in patients according to the recently published scoring system and select the difficult cases to be done by a senior surgeon. Patients: This is a prospective cohort study. This study took place Oct 6th University Hospital and Kasr El Aini Hospital, Cairo university; the study involved 120 patients admitted with calcular cholecystitis, arranged for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy after applying the scoring system. Results: In our study we found that age, sex and ultrasonographic data were significant predictive factors for assessment preoperatively difficult cases that will be operated upon. We found 14 patients above 50 years who scored to be difficult and very difficult were at outcome difficult, only three patients converted to open surgery over fifty. Conclusion: We can report that obese patient who were over fifty with history of previous upper abdominal surgery and ultrasonographic picture showed thick walled GB and pericholecystic collection had high risk of conversion. At this study scoring system was used for prediction of difficult laparoscopic cholecystectomy sensitivity was 93.75% and specificity was 52.94% of the scoring system at score 5 for prediction of easy or difficult laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
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COVID-19: Targeting the cytokine storm via cholinergic anti-inflammatory (Pyridostigmine)

Published on: 21st May, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8620528033

Background: The development of COVID-19 having been set apart as the third presentation of an exceptionally pathogenic coronavirus into the human populace after the extreme intense SARS-COV and MERS-COV in the twenty-first century. The infection itself doesn’t make a crucial commitment to mortality, anyway “cytokine storm” created by the unreasonable invulnerable reaction activated by the virus can result in a hyperinflammatory response of lung tissues and deadly lung injury, and in this way increment death rate. In this manner, immunomodulatory medications ought to likewise be remembered for treatment of COVID-19. Presentation of the hypothesis: the virus particles invade the respiratory mucosa firstly and infect other cells, triggering a series of immune responses and the production of cytokine storm in the body, which may be associated with the critical condition of COVID-19 patients. Once a cytokine storm is formed, the immune system may not be able to kill the virus, but it will certainly kill many normal cells in the lung, which will seriously damage the of lung function. Patients will have respiratory failure until they die of hypoxia. It is not yet clear what the death rate of Covid-19 will be, though the best estimate right now is that it is around 1 percent, 10 times more lethal than seasonal flu due to cytokines storm which trigger a violent attack by the immune system to the body, cause acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multiple organ failure, and finally lead to death in severe cases of COVID-19 infection. Therefore, inhibiting cytokine storm can significantly reduce inflammatory injury in lung tissues. Pyridostigmine (PDG), cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP) is a neural mechanism that modulates inflammation through the release of acetylcholine (ACh), resulting in decreased synthesis of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-1. This finding emphasis, the nervous and immune systems work collaboratively during infection and inflammation. Implications of the hypothesis: Administrations of Pyridostigmine (PDG) as cholinergic agonist inhibits the inflammatory response and lower the mortality of COVID-19 patients. Likewise, activation of the CAP during systemic inflammation down-regulates the production and release of inflammatory cytokines. 
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Strategic Plans for Diagnosis, Treatment & Control of Hypertension

Published on: 23rd November, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7943259097

Two major challenges face the practicing physicians and medical community regarding the management of hypertension. First is accurate diagnosis and finding who is the truly hypertensive patient in need of life-long treatment. Second is to improve blood pressure control through addressing hypertension risk factors, adherence to treatment and frequent monitoring. - Current Challenges in Management o Accurate diagnosis of hypertension o Improving blood pressure control - What Do We Need For The Future?
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The New (2018) European Hypertension Guidelines an overview & comments

Published on: 24th July, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8207879134

The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) jointly developed a series of hypertension guidelines in the years 2003, 207 and 2013. The most recent guidelines were issued by the two societies in August this year (2018) and were published in the European Heart Journal. The new guidelines are printed in more than 90 pages and cover almost all aspects of hypertension based on extensive review of literature giving highest priority to data from randomized controlled trials and well conducted meta-analysis. In important areas where there is inadequate or no evidence, guidelines authors resort to expert opinion. The text was developed over approximately 24 months and was reviewed by representatives of ESC and ESH national hypertension societies. Although it is less than five years since the last hypertension European guidelines in 2013, the recent 2018 guidelines show important differences in diagnosis and treatment strategies with the addition of new sections and recommendations on management of hypertensive emergencies, hypertension in women and pregnancy, different ethnic groups, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cancer therapies, peri-operative management, sexual dysfunction and perioperative management.
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Hydraulic jump experiment in a rectangular open channel flume

Published on: 29th June, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7286424620

This paper presents a laboratory experiment for the formation of hydraulic jump in a rectangular open channel flume to accurately explore the effect of flow structures on water resources. This experiment illustrates the behavior of super-critical flow under sluice gate for various flow rates and downstream depths. Several runs are carried out using Armfield Model No. C4-MKII-5.0-11 to investigate the former computations concerning both the downstream conjugate depth and the critical depth resulting within the jump. Moreover, the model is examined to explore the sensitivity of Froude number by adjusting the flow-meter and over-shot weir in the flume. Also, the type of jump attributed to flow velocity can thus be obtained. Furthermore, both location of hydraulic jump and energy dissipated are discussed under the influence of different gate openings
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